Running A Biomass Gasifier On Various Wood Fuel Pellets
A biomass gasifier is a piece of equipment used to break biomass down from a solid matter into a flammable gas called syngas or synthesis gas. Synthesis gas is made up of mainly carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Converting biomass into syngas is one of cleanest ways to capture and burn energy from biomass such as wood. As well as using pellets.
A biomass gasifier can be used to generate energy for several purposes. For example during the second world war, over one million vehicles were converted to run on synthesis gas using wood. The reason was due to supply issues with oil. Synthesis gas in a 1:1 ratio with air can be used in internal combustion engine. However using a biomass gasifier for transportation is not really practical, particularly in the 21st century as the gasifier has be attached to the vehicle. The use of a biomass gasifier is more suitable to produce gas for heating and electrical generation. A biomass gasifier can be used as both small and large scale CHP units, where both heat and electricity are generated at the same time. For a biomass CHP unit, the biomass gasifier would generate gas to be used in an internal combustion engine which would then power a generator to produce electricity. There would be a large amount of heat from the gasifier and the internal combustion engine which can then be used to heat the property. Germany believes its future energy network will be made up of small scale electrical generators feeding into the national grid such as small gasifiers.
To help the biomass gasifier run efficiently and without complication, the gasifier requires a fuel which can flow through the reactor. Also have a low moisture content so the gasifier can achieve the thermal decomposition temperatures required to produce a clean gas. Pellets have both of these qualities, and are therefore ideal for the gasifier. Turning grass and straw into pellets is particularly relevant, as they cannot be used in their unprocessed natural form very effectively.
Practically all biomass materials can be compressed into pellets, however each raw material has its characteristics which make the material behave differently in the pellet mill. For example material density effects the rate of production and heat required to compress the pellets. Where wood, and particularly hardwood has a high density, straw has a much lower density. Another important factor is the percentage of natural lignin. Lignin the substance which hold biomass together and is crucial in pellet production to help form durable pellets. Please click below to watch a video of our small pellet press in action.